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dc.contributor.authorFitzhenry, Kelly
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, Maria
dc.contributor.authorO'Flaherty, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorDore, William
dc.contributor.authorCormican, Martin
dc.contributor.authorRowan, Neil J.
dc.contributor.authorClifford, Eoghan
dc.identifier.citationFitzhenry, K., Barrett, M., O'Flaherty, V., Dore, W., Cormican, M., Rowan, N., Clifford, E. (2016). The effect of wastewater treatment processes, in particular ultraoviolet light treatment, on pathogenic virus removal. (2011-W-FS-8) EPA Research Report. Johnstown Castle, Wesford: Environmental Protection Agency.en_US
dc.identifier.otherOther - Bioscience Research Instituteen_US
dc.description.abstractMunicipal wastewater treatment plant discharges are a recognised source of human pathogenic viruses, of which norovirus is of great concern and the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Currently, no legislation (nationally or internationally) exists for the monitoring of viral loads in treated effluent. While primary and secondary treatment processes can reduce virus concentrations, they are not specifically designed for this purpose and so tertiary treatment can be required in many cases. Continuous low- and/or medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) light systems are used in conventional wastewater treatment plants as a method of pathogen disinfection. Barrier-based systems, such as membrane filtration processes, are widely used in the drinking water sector as a pathogen removal system; however, operational challenges associated with wastewater have limited their use in this industry. The detection of norovirus is limited to molecular methods that do not distinguish between infective and non-infective viruses. This poses a problem when evaluating certain disinfection methods, such as UV light, which does not remove the virus but rather inactivates it. Thus, in this case, overestimation of virus infectivity can occur. The use of a surrogate virus, the F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage has been suggested as it is morphologically and physiochemically similar to norovirus and it may also be cultivated, i.e. infectivity can be determined.en_US
dc.publisherEnvironmental Protection Agencyen_US
dc.relation.ispartofEPA Research Programme 2014-2020
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Ireland*
dc.subjectWastewater treatmenten_US
dc.subjectUltraviolet (UV)en_US
dc.subjectPathogenic virus removalen_US
dc.titleThe effect of wastewater treatment processes, in particular ultraoviolet light treatment, on pathogenic virus removal.en_US
dc.typeTechnical Reporten_US
dc.rights.accessOpen Accessen_US
dc.subject.departmentBioscience Research Institute AITen_US

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