Monitoring, sources, receptors, and control measures for three European Union watch list substances of emerging concern in receiving waters - a 20 year systematic review
Tiedeken, Erin Jo
Rowan, Neil J.
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Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy. A systematic literature review was conducted of 3952 potentially relevant articles over period 1995 to 2015 that produced a new EU-wide database consisting of 1268 publications on DCL, E2 and EE2. European surface water concentrations of DCL are typically reported below the proposed annual average environmental quality standard (AA EQS) of 100ng/l, but that exceedances frequently occur. E2 and EE2 surface water concentrations are typically below 50ng/l and 10ng/l respectively, but these values greatly exceed the proposed AA EQS values for these compounds (0.04 and 0.035ng/l respectively). However, levels of these CECs are frequently reported to be disproportionately high in EU receiving waters, particularly in effluents at control points that require urgent attention. Overall it was found that DCL and EE2 enter European aquatic environment mainly following human consumption and excretion of therapeutic drugs, and by incomplete removal from influent at urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). E2 is a natural hormone excreted by humans which also experiences incomplete removal during WWTPs treatment. Current conventional analytical chemistry methods are sufficiently sensitive for the detection and quantification of DCL but not for E2 and EE2, thus alternative, ultra-trace, time-integrated monitoring techniques such as passive sampling are needed to inform water quality for these estrogens. DCL appears resistant to conventional wastewater treatment while E2 and EE2 have high removal efficiencies that occur through biodegradation or sorption to organic matter. There is a pressing need to determine fate and behaviour of these CECs in European receiving waters such as using GIS-modelling of river basins as this will identify pressure points for informing priority decision making and alleviation strategies for upgrade of WWTPs and for hospital effluents with advanced treatment technologies. More monitoring data for these CECs in receiving waters is urgently needed for EU legislation and effective risk management
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