Nutritional composition, quality and spoilage capacity of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) from the North East Atlantic
The nutritional composition o f orange roughy (collected from the Northeast Atlantic near the Rockall Trough) was studied on a seasonal basis. In addition samples were aged and stability assessed. Protein levels (16.68-16.21% w/w) were found to be slightly higher than those recorded for the N ew Zealand species o f orange roughy and compared favourably with protein values for fish muscle in general. Statistically results show a significant seasonal variation with no variation from fish to fish or in the location within the fish. Lipid content (3.6-4.5% w/w) was found to be much lower than that recorded for New Zealand. As with protein statistically results show a significant seasonal variation and no variation from fish to fish or in the location within the fish. Moisture levels (77.3_79.6%w/w) compared favourably with values obtained from other studies. Again statistically results show a significant seasonal variation with no variation from fish to fish or within the fish. Iodine values (74.63-79.54) indicate the likely presence o f a high level o f mono unsaturated fatty acids. Statistically results show no significant seasonal variation and no sample variation or variation within fish. Thin layer chromatography o f the extracted fat showed the major type to be wax esters with a much lower amount o f triglycerides and smaller amounts of polar lipids, free sterols and free fatty acids. Total fatty acid composition was found to be very similar to that recorded from other studies and showed that most o f the oils extracted from the fish muscle contained a high percentage o f mono unsaturates namely 16:1,18:1, 20:1 and 22:1 (85.63 - 91.14% ) with 16:1 present in the smallest amounts and 18:1 the major one. The only saturated fatty M.Sc. in Biochemistry III Nutritional Composition, Quality and Spoilage Capacity of Specific Deep Sea Fish acids present in significant quantities were 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0, the total varied from a seasonal average high o f 4.05 % to an average low o f 2.27%. The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic and arachidonic acid were present in small quantities varying in total from 0.89% to 1.50%. Docosapentaenoic acid (D P A ) was found only in trace quantities in spring, autumn and winter samples and undetected in summer. Levels o f Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA ) and Docosahexaenoic acid (D H A ) were also found in very low percentages and varied on a seasonal basis with average values ranging from 0.41% in summer to 1.03 % in autumn for EPA and from 1.44 % in summer to3.20 % in autumn for D H A . Again statistically results show a significant seasonal variation with no variation from fish to fish or location within the fish. Levels o f freshness were measured using the Thiobarbituric acid (T B A ), Total volatile base nitrogen (T V B -N ) and Trimethylamine (T M A ) techniques. The quality o f the fish upon arrival was excellent and well below legal/acceptable lim its.T V B -N values ranged from 6.88-8.91 mg/lOOg and T M A values from 4.82-6.46 mg/lOOg Values for T B A ranged from 0.18-0.35 mg Malonaldehyde/kg fish. The summer values were higher than the other seasons. Seasonal variation was significant for all methods with no variation from fish to fish or within the fish. Fish aged at +4°C in air did not exceed the T V B N lim it o f 35mg/100g until day 6 whereas the T V B N lim it was extended to 8 days for fish aged at +4°C in vacuum. However the T M A lim it o f 12mg/100g was reached on day 4 for fish stored at +4°C in air and on day 5 for vacuum packed samples stored at +4°C . Fish stored at -5°C in air and vacuum packed did not reach the T V B N lim it until day 61 but the T M A limit was reached on day 24 for fish stored at -5°C in air and was extended to 31 days for vacuum packed fish stored at-5°C. Prolonged storage at -18°C caused some deterioration o f the frozen fish muscle. Upon thawing the shelf life o f fish stored for 12 months was much shorter than that stored for 6 M.Sc. in Biochemistry IV Nutritional Composition, Quality and Spoilage Capacity of Specific Deep Sea Fish months. This in turn deteriorated faster than fresh fish held at refridgeration temperature in air. Orange roughy were found to be a good source of protein with moisture levels similar to that o f other fish. They were o f medium fat content but have a very poor content o f the essential omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Orange roughy can be stored at -18°C but its subsequent refridgerated shelf life will be shorter than that o f unfrozen orange roughy stored at refridgeration temperature. Orange roughy are a very important part o f the ecosystem. Their composition is less nutritionally beneficial than more readily available fish for human consumption and therefore should not be fished at all
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