Development of a low-temperature extrusion process for production of GRAS bioactive-polymer loaded compounds for targeting antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria
Rowan, Neil J.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is recognised globally as one of the greatest threats to human and animal health; thus, discovery of alternative antibacterial agents to address AMR is a priority challenge. This study constitutes the first report of a low-melting temperature, polymer- extrusion process for the smart delivery of thermally-sensitive antimicrobial bioactives, including generally-regarded-as-safe (GRAS) bioactives derived from various sources. Bioactives were assessed before and after extrusion by determining their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). WHO-priority AMR-bacterial isolates causing zoonotic infections were evaluated along with use of standard ATCC strains. Findings revealed that this copolymer method was capable of delivering thermally-sensitive bioactives with varying degrees of growth inhibition against the AMR-bacterial strains. The extrusion process was found to increase the effect of nisin against MRSA (4-fold increase) and L. monocytogenes (6.4-fold increase), silver nitrate (AgNO3) against E. coli (3.6-fold increase) and S. epidermidis (1.25-fold increase), and chitosan against S. aureus (1.25-fold). Findings show the potential applicability of this polymer extrusion process for developing future bioactive-loaded polymer compounds; thus, highlighting the potential of converging bio-based industry with novel materials for enabling ‘One-Health’ solutions.
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