Performance of mycelial biomass and exopolysacccharide from Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum for the fungivore red hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in Zebrafish embyro.
Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd
Harith, Hanis H.
Rahim, Muhamad Haifz Abd
Rowan, Neil J.
Wan-Hohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad
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Natural mycelial biomass (MB) and extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS) from the pre-grown Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum mushroom are both considered as high-end materials due to their high commercial value in the aquaculture industry. To evaluate their potential toxicity as a fish-feed supplement for the fungivore red hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), both MB (250−5000 μg/mL) and EPS (62.5−3000 μg/mL) were subjected to zebrafish embryo toxicity (ZFET) assay, and the effects on zebrafish embryos (ZE) early development were analyzed between 24−120 hours of post-exposure (HPE). MB and EPS showed no toxic effect towards the ZE with LC50 of 1650 μg/mL and 2648.38 μg/mL, respectively. MB at concentrations between 250−5000 μg/mL and EPS at 3000 μg/mL showed no significant changes in ZE hatching. No significant changes in the ZE heart rate were detected following treatment with both tested compounds (MB: 250−2000 μg/mL and EPS: 62.5−3000 μg/mL) as compared to untreated embryos (135.5 beats/min). Furthermore, teratogenic effects of both MB and EPS (<3000 μg/mL) on zebrafish embryonic development were not observed. Together, both natural compounds MB and EPS can be considered non-toxic, suggesting that these can be safely applied as feed substances in the fish-feed aquaculture industry.
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