A tough and novel dual-response PAA/P(NiPAAM-co-PEGDMA) IPN hydrogels with ceramics by photopolymerization for consolidation of bone fragments following fracture.
de Lima, Gabriel Goetten
Elter, Johanna Katrin
Chee, Bor Shin
Magalhães, Washington Luiz Esteves
Devine, Declan M.
Nugent, Michael J.
de Sá, Marcelo J.C.
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In this work, a novel dual-response hydrogel for enhanced bone repair following multiple fractures was investigated. The conventional treatment of multiple bone fracture consists on removing smaller bone fragments from the body in a surgery, followed by the fixation of the bone using screws and plates. This work proposes an alternative for this treatment via in-situ UV-initiated radical polymerization of a novel IPN hydrogel composed of PAA/P(NiPAAM-co-PEGDMA) incorporated with ceramic additives. The influence of different additives on mechanical properties and sensitivity of the polymer, as well as the prepolymer mixture, were investigated in order to analyse the suitability of the composites for bone healing applications. This material exhibited an interpenetrating network, confirmed by FTIR, with ceramics particles dispersed in between the polymer network. These structures presented high strength by tensile tests, sensitivity to pH and temperature and a decrease on Tg values of NiPAAm depending on the amount of PEGDMA and ceramics added; although, the addition of ceramics to these composites did not decrease their stability drastically. Finally, cytotoxicity tests revealed variations on the toxicity, whereas the addition of TCP presented to be non-toxic and that the cell viability increased when ceramics additives were incorporated into the polymeric matrix with an increased reporter activity of NF-κB, associated with aiding fibroblast adhesion. Hence, it was possible to optimise feedstock ratios to increase the applicability of the prepolymer mixture as a potential treatment of multiple fractures.
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