Review of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and in vitro tract models.
Cortese, Yvonne J.
Wagner, Victoria E.
Devine, Declan M.
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Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections and can lead to numerous medical complications from the mild catheter encrustation and bladder stones to the severe septicaemia, endotoxic shock, and pyelonephritis. Catheters are one of the most commonly used medical devices in the world and can be characterised as either indwelling (ID) or intermittent catheters (IC). The primary challenges in the use of IDs are biofilm formation and encrustation. ICs are increasingly seen as a solution to the complications caused by IDs as ICs pose no risk of biofilm formation due to their short time in the body and a lower risk of bladder stone formation. Research on IDs has focused on the use of antimicrobial and antibiofilm compounds, while research on ICs has focused on preventing bacteria entering the urinary tract or coming into contact with the catheter. There is an urgent need for in vitro urinary tract models to facilitate faster research and development for CAUTI prevention. There are currently three urinary tract models that test IDs; however, there is only a single very limited model for testing ICs. There is currently no standardised urinary tract model to test the efficacies of ICs.
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