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dc.contributor.authorUsuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad
dc.contributor.authorWan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad
dc.contributor.authorIlham, Zul
dc.contributor.authorJamaludin, Adi Ainurzaman
dc.contributor.authorAbdullah, Nur Raihan
dc.contributor.authorRowan, Neil
dc.identifier.citationUsuldin, S.R.A., Wan-Mohtar, W.A.A.Q.I., Ilham, Z. et al (2021). In vivo toxicity of bioreactor-grown biomass and exopolysaccharides from Malaysian tiger milk mushroom mycelium for potential future health applications. Sci Rep 11, 23079..
dc.description.abstractNatural mycelial biomass (MB) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) of Malaysian tiger milk mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus are considered high-end components due to their high commercial potential value in drug discovery. This study aims to evaluate the toxicity of the mushroom extracts’ generated in a bioreactor using the zebrafsh embryo toxicity (ZFET) model assay as a new therapy for treating asthma. Both MB and EPS extracts, at concentrations 0.16–10 mg/mL, were tested for ZFET and early development efects on Zebrafsh Embryos (ZE) during 24–120 h post-fertilisation (HPF). Findings revealed that MB was deemed safe with an LC50 of 0.77 mg/mL; the EPS were non-toxic (LC50 of 0.41 mg/mL). Neither MB nor EPS delayed hatching nor teratogenic defects in the treated ZE at a 2.5 mg/mL dose. There were no signifcant changes in the ZE heart rate after treatments with MB (130 beats/min) and EPS (140 beats/min), compared to that of normal ZE (120–180 beats/min). Mixing both natural compounds MB and EPS did not afect toxicity using ZFET testing; thus, intimating their safe future use as therapeutic interventions. This represents the frst study to have used the ZFET assay on MB and EPS extracts of L. rhinocerus for future health applications.en_US
dc.publisherNature Researchen_US
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.titleIn vivo toxicity of bioreactor-grown biomass and exopolysaccharides from Malaysian tiger milk mushroom mycelium for potential future health applicationsen_US
dc.contributor.affiliationAthlone Institute of Techologyen_US
dc.identifier.orcid 0000-0002-5384-4325en_US
dc.identifier.orcid 0000-0003-1228-3733en_US
dc.subject.departmentBioscience Reserch Institute AITen_US
dc.relation.projectidUniversiti Malaya under the GPF084A-2020 and IIRG003A-2020IISS awarded to Dr WanMohtar,  ST007-2021 (Dr Ilham) and Agro-Biotechnology Institute (ABI), Malaysia, under the Bio-Analytical Industry Development Programme (BIDP) awarded to Ms Siti Usuldin. The work was also funded by H2020 MSCA RISE project (number 872217/19)  and Interreg Atlantic Area Neptunus Project (EAPA_576/2018)  awarded to Prof Neil Rowan.en_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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