Effect of thermal annealing on a bilayer polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid electrospun hydrogel nanofibres loaded with doxorubicin and clarithromycin for a synergism effect against osteosarcoma cells
Chee, Bor Shin
de Lima, Gabriel Goetten
de Lima, T.A.M.
Pereira, Bruno Leandro
Nugent, Michael J.D.
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Polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid (PVA/PAA) bilayer hydrogel nanofibres were successfully fabricated by electrospinning and physically crosslinked via heat treatment. The effects of the thermal annealing process on the structure, morphology, swelling, thermal properties and hydrophilicity of electrospun nanofibres were investigated. In addition, these membranes were also used to incorporate doxorubicin and clarithromycin for osteosarcoma treatment, one in each layer. These drugs were used because it is hypothesized in this work that a synergism occurs between both drugs. So, these membranes were analyzed towards their dual-drug release and potential cytotoxicity towards the U2OS human osteo sarcoma cell line. Moreover, the water contact angle, disintegration, swelling and weight loss studies confirmed the rapid swelling and improved water stability of the annealed PVA/PAA bilayer nanofibres. The annealed bilayer nanofibres exhibited an increase in the average diameter and degree of crystallinity. In addition, the results revealed that a variation occurred in the degree of hydrophilicity of annealed PVA/ PAA bilayer nanofibres. The PAA nanofibres surface exhibited higher hydrophilicity than the PVA nanofibres surface. Drug delivery presented to be as fast rate release for clarithromycin and slow-rate release for doxorubicin, which may be advantageous because both drugs exhibited to be synergetic for certain dosages presenting the combination of the drugs higher than 50% of cell inhibition, while these membranes had higher inhibition values (up to 90%), which was attributed to the PAA but also the drugs. These unique properties are of potential interest where the tunability of surfaces is desirable.
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