Applying an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour to 2 predict breakfast consumption in adolescents
Davies, Emma L
Clegg, Miriam E
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Background/Objectives: Breakfast skipping increases during adolescence and is associated with lower levels of physical activity and weight gain. Theory-based interventions promoting breakfast consumption in adolescents report mixed findings, potentially due to limited research identifying which determinants to target. This study aimed to: (i) utilise the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify the relative contribution of attitudes (affective, cognitive and behavioural) to predict intention to eat breakfast and breakfast consumption in adolescents; (ii) determine whether 32 demographic factors moderates the relationship between TPB variables, intention and behaviour. Subjects/Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 434 students (mean 14 ± 0.9 years) measuring breakfast consumption (0-2, 3-6 or 7 days), physical activity levels and TPB measures. Data were analysed by breakfast frequency and demographics using hierarchical and multinomial regression analyses. Results: Breakfast was consumed every day by 57% of students with boys more likely to eat a regular breakfast, report higher activity levels and more positive attitudes towards breakfast than girls (p<.001). The TPB predicted 58% of the variation in intentions. Overall, the model was predictive of breakfast behaviours (p<.001), but the relative contribution of TPB constructs varied depending on breakfast frequency. Interactions between gender and intentions were significant when comparing 0-2 and 3-6 day breakfast eaters only highlighting a stronger intention-behaviour relationship for girls. Conclusions: Findings confirm that the TPB is a successful model for predicting breakfast intentions and behaviours in adolescents. The potential for a direct effect of attitudes on behaviours should be considered in the implementation and design of breakfast interventions.
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